Nor is the devastating strip-mining of coal limited to the Appalachian coalfields. Nor is it abating. Forty years latermountaintop removal operations have destroyed over mountains, 1.
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This technique is used for near-surface, relatively flat sedimentary mineral deposits. How deeply the mining can occur is essentially determined by the combination of technological capabilities and the economics involved. The latter includes the current value of the mineral, contractual arrangements with the landowner, and mining costs, including reclamation.
The dust and particles from mining roads, stockpiles, and lands disturbed by mining are a significant source of air pollution. This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques: area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger miningand mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section.
Strip miningremoval of soil and rock overburden above a layer or seam particularly coalfollowed by the removal of the exposed mineral. The common strip-mining techniques are classified as area mining or contour mining on the basis of the deposit geometry and type. The cycle of operations for both techniques consists of vegetation clearing, soil removal, drilling and blasting of overburden if neededstripping, removal of the coal or other mineral commodity, and reclamation.
Noah Adams. An aerial photo of the accident scene. An approximately 1,pound rock tumbled nearly feet down a steep, wooded hillside and smashed into the wall of Jeremy Davidson's bedroom, killing the 3-year-old boy.
Surface miningincluding strip miningopen-pit mining and mountaintop removal miningis a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit the overburden are removed, in contrast to underground miningin which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels. Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth century  [ dubious — discuss ] and is practiced throughout the world, although the majority of surface coal mining occurs in North America. In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmoversfirst remove the overburden.
Surface miningmethod of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit miningstrip miningand quarrying. See also mining and coal mining.
Listen Listening On this West Virginia Morning, Ohio Valley residents have been asking government agencies for more than a decade to respond to science that links coal mining to health problems in nearby communities. Last year, the National Academy of Sciences launched a study on the issue.
Most of the effigies depict bison, usually cows, with tongues out, indicating either running or being in labour. The specimens have all suffered damage from ploughing but are still remarkable and accurate anatomical reproductions of bison. Source: Royal Alberta Museum. The entrance to Galt Drift Mine No.