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Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery. Although the skin is a large and logical target for drug delivery, its basic functions limit its utility for this purpose.
However, the outer most layer of the human skin, stratum corneum; possess the formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby reducing bio-availability. Most of the drugs do not have an ability to penetrate the stratum corneum. Owing to the side effects of chemical penetration enhancers interest has been aroused among researchers to find out natural sources as penetration enhancers to improve the bio-availability of drugs so that they can be delivered through skin.
Skin penetration enhancers are the most commonly used approach for enhancing drug penetration into the skin through transdermal drug delivery system or topical administration. These skin penetration enhancers are molecules which reversibly remove the barrier resistance of the stratum corneum and allow drugs to penetrate more readily to the viable tissues and thus enter the systemic circulation. The purpose of this review was to present penetration enhancing potential of Aloe Vera.
We investigated preliminary acute toxicity and primary skin irritation of nine pyrrolidone derivatives which had been previously developed as transdermal penetration enhancers. Their primary skin irritations were examined with rabbit dorsal skin. Pyrrolidone derivatives having methyl group and methyloxycarbonyl group caused little irritation.
Wilbur, Pharm. Topical medications are widely used as prescription or over the counter OTC treatments for a variety of conditions. Though, their use is common, there exists a significant confusion among the general public and some medically trained professionals, as to the difference between topical and transdermal products.
Under many aqueous conditions, metal oxide nanoparticles attract other nanoparticles and grow into fractal aggregates as the result of a balance between electrostatic and Van Der Waals interactions. Although particle coagulation has been studied for over a century, the effect of light on the state of aggregation is not well understood. Since nanoparticle mobility and toxicity have been shown to be a function of aggregate size, and generally increase as size decreases, photo-induced disaggregation may have significant effects.