Goniometry of the Thumb Joints. Carpometacarpal Thumb Flexion. Carpometacarpal Thumb Extension.
Osteoarthritis in the thumb is the most common form of arthritis that affects the hands. Osteoarthritis results from the breakdown of joint cartilage and the underlying bone. It can affect the basal joint, which is the joint near the wrist and the fleshy part of the thumb.
Patient information: See related handout on mallet fingerwritten by the authors of this article. This is part I of a two-part article on finger injuries. Improper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries can cause deformity and dysfunction over time.
The muscles of the thumb are nine skeletal muscles located in the hand and forearm. The muscles allow for flexionextensionadductionabduction and opposition of the thumb. The muscles acting on the thumb can be divided into two groups: The extrinsic hand muscles, with their muscle bellies located in the forearm, and the intrinsic hand muscles, with their muscles bellies located in the hand proper. The muscles can be compared to guy-wires supporting a flagpole; tension from these muscular guy-wires must be provided in all directions to maintain stability in the articulated column formed by the bones of the thumb.
The hand possesses remarkable ability to grip and feel. We use our hands to explore our environment, to communicate, to write, use a keyboard, drive a car, to manipulate and use tools and numerous other activities. The forearm is connected to the hand by the wrist.
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The interphalangeal joints of the hand are the hinge joints between the phalanges of the fingers that provide flexion towards the palm of the hand. Anatomically, the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints are very similar. There are some minor differences in how the palmar plates are attached proximally and in the segmentation of the flexor tendon sheath, but the major differences are the smaller dimension and reduced mobility of the distal joint.
Manual Muscle Testing of the Thumb. Hislop, Helen J. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle testing: techniques of manual examination.
Kids can use some pretty interesting grasps on pencils. You can see the thumb squashed up against the pencil, the pointer finger wrapped around the pencil, or the thumb wrapped around the fingers. Very often, the pencil grasp that a child is using is not one of stability and rather, is a demonstration of instability as weakness in the muscles of the hand is compensating during handwriting.